What is Dementia: know Its Symptoms, Causes, And Treatment

Dementia: What is dementia (dementia)?

Dementia may develop with age, but it is not considered a normal stage of aging. Studies have followed that people 65 years of age or older are at the highest risk of getting it.

One out of every 10 people over the age of 65 has dementia. This figure increases even more by the age of 85.

About 60 to 80 percent of dementia cases are Alzheimer's. In this article today we will tell you what is dementia and how to identify it and what is its treatment.

How common is dementia?

A total of 47.5 million people worldwide are victims of dementia. There is a new case of dementia every 4 seconds.

Dementia mostly affects people 65 years of age and older. It can be controlled by reducing its symptoms, but, talk to your doctor for more information.

symptoms of dementia

What are the symptoms of Dementia?

A patient with dementia may experience the following symptoms. However, keep in mind that in some cases of memory loss, the patient may not be aware that he or she has dementia.

In such a situation, the family members and people taking care of the person have to identify these symptoms so that the patient can be provided treatment at the right time.

Common symptoms of dementia are:

  • memory loss
  • Confusion about time and place
  • misplacement
  • Sudden changes in personality, behavior, and mood
  • uninterested in starting anything

Some symptoms may not have been mentioned in the list above. If you have any questions about the symptoms, contact your doctor.

When to go to the doctor?

If you notice any of the symptoms listed above, or if you have any memory problems, see your doctor. Every person's body works in a different way. So, it is always good to talk to the doctor as per your problem.


stages of dementia

In most cases, dementia gets worse over time. Dementia affects all individuals differently. However, people experience symptoms according to the following stages

mild cognitive deficit

The elderly may experience mild cognitive impairment with increasing age. However, not all cases of this cause the person to become a victim of dementia. People with mild cognitive deficits experience forgetfulness, remembering words, and short-term memory loss.

mild dementia

People with mild dementia stage have problems with daily activities. In this condition, at times a person may have to face mild to moderate cognitive deficit. Its symptoms include –

  • Misplacement or forgetting
  • short term memory loss
  • Difficulty solving psychiatric problems
  • behavioral changes such as changes in anger or depression
  • Feeling struggling to express one's feelings and thoughts

moderate dementia

Difficulty completing daily tasks and needing someone's help. Its symptoms are similar to mild dementia but slightly more severe. In this situation also, behavioral changes start coming in the person and with age the person starts becoming suspicious without any reason.

In this phase, the person needs help in getting ready, doing hair and even getting dressed. Its common symptoms include –

severe dementia

At this stage the situation becomes even more serious than before. Individuals lose the ability to interact with people as well as need someone's help the whole time.

In this stage, the person has to take the support of someone else to get up and sit. Apart from this, during severe dementia, the person also loses the ability to control his urine.

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Dementia is a disease that has many stages along with many types. These types depend on the condition and age of the person. Types of dementia include:

episodes of dementia

  1. Alzheimer's disease – This is the most common disease caused by dementia. However, at the moment all causes of Alzheimer's disease are unknown. Protein abnormalities begin to occur in the brain of a person suffering from this disease, due to which his nervous system is damaged and he loses control over his brain.

    Alzheimer's disease accounts for 60 to 80 percent of dementia cases. A person can live for 8 to 20 years if suffering from it.

  2. Vascular Dementia – This is the second most common type of dementia caused by damage to the blood vessels in the brain. Stroke can occur due to damage to blood vessels. Apart from this, it can affect the brain in other ways, such as damage to the white matter fibers of the brain. The main symptoms of vascular dementia include problems with problem solving, decreased thinking ability, inability to concentrate, and difficulties with organization.
  3. Lewy body – Proteins in nerves make it difficult to send chemical signals to the brain. This results in memory loss, delay in reacting, and loss of messages.
  4. Mixed Dementia – This type of dementia means that the person is suffering from two or three types of dementia simultaneously. For example, a person may have symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia at the same time.
  5. Frontotemporal Dementia – This type of dementia is also called Pick's disease. It affects the behavior and personality of the person. In this condition, the front and one side of the brain do not work properly. In such a situation, the person has difficulty in speaking, understanding others.
  6. Parkinson's disease – The risk of developing dementia is very high in severe patients of this disease. In this type of dementia, the person has problems with thinking and decision making, as well as increased irritability, insanity and depression.

Apart from these, there are many other types of dementia, but they are likely to occur in only 1 person in 10 lakhs. Consult your doctor to learn about other types of dementia.

due to dementia

What are the causes of Dementia?

Dementia is caused by damaged brain cells. It hinders the brain cells to coordinate with each other, due to which our nature and our thinking start getting affected.

Most of the damage in dementia is permanent and tends to get worse over time. Dementia can have the following reasons. In such a situation, if these problems are rectified, then to a great extent dementia can be relieved, such as:

  • depression
  • side effects of medicines
  • alcohol consumption
  • thyroid problem
  • vitamin deficiency

risk factors of dementia

What things increase the risk of dementia

Reasons we can't change

  • Age: The risk of developing dementia may increase after the age of 65. But, many people get it in puberty too.
  • Family history: Many people do not show any symptoms despite having a family history of this disease, while many people have symptoms without any family history. Therefore, your doctor may do some tests to check for genetic traits.
  • Down syndrome: Those who have Down syndrome get this disease early and may later develop Alzheimer's in old age .
  • Mild Cognitive Impairment: In this also there seems to be a problem of memory, but, there is no significant difference in everyday life, but, such people may be at risk of dementia later on.

Reasons we can change

  • Addiction Habit: If we drink alcohol in excess, then there is a higher risk of this disease.
  • Risk of cardiovascular risk: These include high blood pressure , high cholesterol, atherosclerosis, and obesity.
  • Depression: Depression is also believed to be a cause of dementia.
  • Diabetes : If you have diabetes , then you are at higher risk of developing dementia and if it is not under control, then this risk increases even more.
  • Smoking: This also increases your risk of dementia as well as other diseases such as diseases related to blood vessels. Sleep Apnea: People who snore or sometimes suddenly stop their breathing while sleeping , they may also be at risk of losing memory for some time in between.

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patient identification and treatment

The information given here is not a substitute for any medical advice, always consult your doctor for more details.

How is dementia diagnosed?

  • Medical history: To know about dementia, the doctor asks questions about our family history, such as any previous diseases, any injuries and any surgeries, as well as the medicines already taken and the current condition that causes dementia. could be the reason.
  • Physical examination: Tests to detect our hearing, vision, blood pressure , pulse and health and disease. They can know our medical condition accurately.
  • Neurological tests: These can detect problems in our brain and nervous system. It also detects those problems of the nervous system, which affect our behavior and thinking power.
  • Neuropsychological Test: This is a simple question-answer type test. For example, as the doctor may ask the patient to remember certain words or name certain things, etc. Is.

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How to treat Dementia?

Dementia can be cured with the following medications and therapies:


  • Cholinesterase inhibitors: together with donepezil (Aricept), rivastigmine (Exelon) and galantamine (Razadyne).
  • Memantine: In some cases, memantine along with cholinesterase inhibitor is also prescribed by the doctor.
  • Apart from this, other prescriptions can also be available.

Methods of treatment without medicine

  • Occupational therapy: Changing the environment around the patient also helps in improving his mental problem and behavior.
  • Mental peace therapy: Music, pets, art, massage etc. can also help in balancing the patient's mental state and behavior.

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According to years of studies by researchers and doctors, dementia can neither be cured nor there is any prevention. However, according to a new research in 2017 in 1/3 of the cases of dementia, dementia can be treated with the help of proper care and prevention.

At present, there is a need to do more study on this subject, but still prevention of dementia can be possible by taking care of the following things –

  • abstaining from smoking and other intoxicants such as marijuana and alcohol
  • Choose foods rich in vitamins and antioxidants over unhealthy foods
  • Don't let your blood pressure, cholesterol, sugar and fat levels rise if you have heart disease
  • In case of any kind of disease, get it treated immediately
  • Take special care of your sleep with increasing age

Keep in mind that there is no medically approved way to prevent this disease.

Lifestyle changes and home remedies

What are the lifestyle changes and home remedies that can help in dealing with dementia?

The following lifestyle and home remedies can help a dementia patient make life easier:

Conversation: While talking, we should talk with the person in front of us and speak slowly. You can also use some simple gestures to explain your point.

Exercise: Exercise and nutritious food will both work in improving you and your overall health and will also keep the mind safe.

Balanced Lifestyle: Apart from your daily activities, dancing, painting, cooking, singing and whatever else you like should be done.

Get enough sleep: Caffeine should be reduced. Also, get seven to eight hours of sleep a day.

Keeping a calendar: This will help you to remember upcoming events as well as remember your routine and medicine time.

If you want to get answers to any kind of question, then consult your doctor, so that you can get the right treatment according to your problem.

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